Sunday, June 7, 2020
In the time left before the end of this year, you have an opportunity to reduce your taxable estate by making gifts up to your $12,000 per-beneficiary gift tax exclusion. Many Americans will miss this opportunity. Once the calendar turns over, you'll have next year's exclusions available (increasing from $12,000 to $13,000), but you'll also be leaving behind 2008's unused exclusions. If, for example, you have six grandchildren, you can gift $12,000 in cash or other property to each of them this year, or $72,000 in total, without incurring any gift taxes. If you're married, your spouse can do the same for those six grandchildren, and together you've removed $144,000 from your combined estates, along with all future growth of those assets. Your heirs stand to gain tens of thousands of dollars (or more) that Uncle Sam might otherwise claim upon your death. So why doesn't every well-off individual fully utilize his or her annual exclusions? No doubt it's because most people don't like the idea of giving away their hard-earned dollars. To be eligible for the gift-tax annual exclusion, the gift must be irrevocable, and it must be made without any strings attached (except for what your attorney may be able to craft through a trust or family partnership). What's yours now no longer belongs to you, and that can be a tough pill to swallow. Unless, of course, we're talking about a 529 plan. With a 529, you have the right to change the beneficiary to another family member, direct the use of distributions, and even ask for the money back at any time (subject to tax and 10% penalty on the earnings). Yet your contributions to the 529 plan are treated as gifts from you to the account beneficiary, and those gifts qualify for the $12,000 annual exclusion. It's quite extraordinary. Even more amazing is that you may elect to spread large contributions (as much as $60,000 per beneficiary this year, or $65,000 per beneficiary next year) over five calendar years for gift tax purposes. This is often referred to as "accelerated gifting," and it's only available through 529 plans. Perhaps you're thinking "so what?" Thanks to the estate tax exemption, you may not expect your estate to be subject to tax anyway. The exemption against estate taxes is $2 million in 2008, increasing to $3.5 million in 2009. And in 2010, the federal estate tax disappears entirely. So why worry about it now? There are at least two reasons to worry. The first is that the estate tax is scheduled to return in all its fury on January 1, 2011, with the exemption retreating to $1 million. The second reason is that even when an estate doesn't owe federal estate tax, taxes may still be owed to your state. This occurs in approximately two dozen estates. Perhaps Congress and the President will act to protect estates from tax after 2010, but neither candidate in the presidential race is supporting the permanent repeal of estate taxes. A 529 plan will continue to make a lot of sense as a way to remove assets from your estate without removing your ability to control those assets. Not to mention, it can go a long way in helping your children or grandchildren afford college. Here are a few additional tips concerning 529 plans and gifting: Count up all your gifts during the year when planning your contributions to a 529 plan. If you contribute $12,000 to a 529 plan during 2008, and make another $300 of cash gifts to your beneficiary in the same year, your total gifts are $12,300 and you have exceeded the annual exclusion. If you use Upromise, Futuretrust, the Fidelity 529 Rewards Card, or other affinity programs to sweep your purchase rebates into a 529 plan, you should count those as gifts too. Be sure your contribution gets made early enough to be counted as a 2008 gift, if that is your intention. Leave enough time for your check to be received and credited to your 529 account. If you qualify for a state income tax deduction for your contribution, be sure to check the rules in your state regarding the timing of the contribution. If you make 529 contributions exceeding $12,000 for a beneficiary, you may elect to spread those contributions (but not more than $60,000 for 2008) over a five-year period for gift-tax purposes. You must file Form 709 with the IRS in order to make that election. Form 709 has the same filing due dates as Form 1040. If you failed to file Form 709 for a prior year election, go ahead and file it now. There's no late-filing penalty. Carefully coordinate your gifting with your spouse. You may agree to gift-splitting, but check the Form 709 instructions to determine how to indicate such consent. If your 529 contributions after gift-splitting still exceed $12,000, you and your spouse must make separate five-year spreading elections if that is your intention. Posted October 6, 2008 In the time left before the end of this year, you have an opportunity to reduce your taxable estate by making gifts up to your $12,000 per-beneficiary gift tax exclusion. Many Americans will miss this opportunity. Once the calendar turns over, you'll have next year's exclusions available (increasing from $12,000 to $13,000), but you'll also be leaving behind 2008's unused exclusions. If, for example, you have six grandchildren, you can gift $12,000 in cash or other property to each of them this year, or $72,000 in total, without incurring any gift taxes. If you're married, your spouse can do the same for those six grandchildren, and together you've removed $144,000 from your combined estates, along with all future growth of those assets. Your heirs stand to gain tens of thousands of dollars (or more) that Uncle Sam might otherwise claim upon your death. So why doesn't every well-off individual fully utilize his or her annual exclusions? No doubt it's because most people don't like the idea of giving away their hard-earned dollars. To be eligible for the gift-tax annual exclusion, the gift must be irrevocable, and it must be made without any strings attached (except for what your attorney may be able to craft through a trust or family partnership). What's yours now no longer belongs to you, and that can be a tough pill to swallow. Unless, of course, we're talking about a 529 plan. With a 529, you have the right to change the beneficiary to another family member, direct the use of distributions, and even ask for the money back at any time (subject to tax and 10% penalty on the earnings). Yet your contributions to the 529 plan are treated as gifts from you to the account beneficiary, and those gifts qualify for the $12,000 annual exclusion. It's quite extraordinary. Even more amazing is that you may elect to spread large contributions (as much as $60,000 per beneficiary this year, or $65,000 per beneficiary next year) over five calendar years for gift tax purposes. This is often referred to as "accelerated gifting," and it's only available through 529 plans. Perhaps you're thinking "so what?" Thanks to the estate tax exemption, you may not expect your estate to be subject to tax anyway. The exemption against estate taxes is $2 million in 2008, increasing to $3.5 million in 2009. And in 2010, the federal estate tax disappears entirely. So why worry about it now? There are at least two reasons to worry. The first is that the estate tax is scheduled to return in all its fury on January 1, 2011, with the exemption retreating to $1 million. The second reason is that even when an estate doesn't owe federal estate tax, taxes may still be owed to your state. This occurs in approximately two dozen estates. Perhaps Congress and the President will act to protect estates from tax after 2010, but neither candidate in the presidential race is supporting the permanent repeal of estate taxes. A 529 plan will continue to make a lot of sense as a way to remove assets from your estate without removing your ability to control those assets. Not to mention, it can go a long way in helping your children or grandchildren afford college. Here are a few additional tips concerning 529 plans and gifting: Count up all your gifts during the year when planning your contributions to a 529 plan. If you contribute $12,000 to a 529 plan during 2008, and make another $300 of cash gifts to your beneficiary in the same year, your total gifts are $12,300 and you have exceeded the annual exclusion. If you use Upromise, Futuretrust, the Fidelity 529 Rewards Card, or other affinity programs to sweep your purchase rebates into a 529 plan, you should count those as gifts too. Be sure your contribution gets made early enough to be counted as a 2008 gift, if that is your intention. Leave enough time for your check to be received and credited to your 529 account. If you qualify for a state income tax deduction for your contribution, be sure to check the rules in your state regarding the timing of the contribution. If you make 529 contributions exceeding $12,000 for a beneficiary, you may elect to spread those contributions (but not more than $60,000 for 2008) over a five-year period for gift-tax purposes. You must file Form 709 with the IRS in order to make that election. Form 709 has the same filing due dates as Form 1040. If you failed to file Form 709 for a prior year election, go ahead and file it now. There's no late-filing penalty. Carefully coordinate your gifting with your spouse. You may agree to gift-splitting, but check the Form 709 instructions to determine how to indicate such consent. If your 529 contributions after gift-splitting still exceed $12,000, you and your spouse must make separate five-year spreading elections if that is your intention. Posted October 6, 2008
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2030 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/09/21 Category Advertising Essay Type Argumentative essay Level High school Tags: Fast Food Essay Did you like this example? Introduction The fast-food industry has been developing rapidly and has successfully penetrated majority of the markets globally, at the same time bringing about several significant changes in practices, work and employment relations. Fast-food restaurants are distinguished and characterized by their inexpensive food products prepared in a standardized method that is dispensed to their customers quickly and efficiently for takeaway or dine-in and are usually packaged without the provision of utensils. However, the rapid expansion and proliferation of the industry was not a smooth transition, instead, it has brought about several controversies and criticisms. Such growth and success has brought disadvantages to workersÃ¢â¬â¢ rights, wages and the conditions of work (Royle Towers, 2002) as well as providing a greater insight on how work and employment relations should be better managed. In addition, it also brought to light that not all protocols, standards and prac tices of the fast-food company fits the different markets globally perfectly, due to the different cultures, mindsets and preferences, which we will be exploring in depth in this essay in particular, the fast-food industry in Singapore, Germany and United States. Even though major corporations were to set up fast-food restaurants in the listed countries, similarities and differences will arise and we will discuss this in the essay. The Fast-Food Labour force The fast-food industry has showed several trends in their employment practices in different countries with each workforce showing distinct characteristics. This is because the fast-food companies generally tend to aim the flawed and insignificant group of the labour market, with majority of the employees being inexperience, low-skilled, young and easily replaceable labour. In addition, due to the nature of this industry, the job scope is highly standardized and repetitive, thus it is seen to be a job that has low and unpromi sing future prospects. It has also played a big role in causing the proliferation of insecure, unstable, part-time and low wage employment. We will now look into the similarities and differences between Singapore and the 2 other countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ fast food industry, using a good example by McDonaldsÃ¢â¬â¢. First of all, Singapore and United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ labour force shows parallels in the type, nature and mindsets and displayed high labour turnover rates. The Singapore fast-food industry labour force is generally made up of a range of different age groups with differing qualifications. For instance in restaurant outlets, restaurant managers are usually secondary school leavers and the crew members usually hold low education qualifications. However employees working in the headquarters are experienced, skillful and highly qualified often graduates or those who had previous managerial experience. The employees based in the headquarters are offered better employment benefits and prospects as findings showed that each executive has an individually negotiated employment contract (Pereira, 2002), and they tend to deal with more challenging and more enriching jobs. However, employees in the outlets see their job in McDonaldsÃ¢â¬â¢ as a short-term temporary job with no promising future prospects and as large percentage of the part-time crew consists of students, they will leave the job upon graduation or if they found a better job with better prospects, permanent and with better benefits rather than continue working with McDonaldsÃ¢â¬â¢. Even so, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s attempted to retain their youth employees Ã¢â¬â restaurant managers especially, by treating them like Ã¢â¬ËprofessionalsÃ¢â¬â¢, having more professional seminars but they eventually did not stay long. Due to SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s changing demographics, low birth rates and the fact that more individuals are graduating higher educational qualifications- a degree, the labour pool that M cDonaldsÃ¢â¬â¢ can tap into has become relatively much smaller thus they have turned to employing the elders whom to, are pleased and have accepted the low wages and lesser employment benefits for the convenience of work location, less commitment and the simplicity of the jobs. This is when the pattern of the labour shift to the elderly, as by late 1990s, 40 per cent of all employees in McDonaldsÃ¢â¬â¢ are elders consisting of housewives or retirees (Royle Towers, 2002) and partly because it was illegal for foreign workers to work in fast-food industry. True enough, for the case of United States, their abour workforce is made up of youth too, as shown in a 1994 study that almost 70 percent of fast-food workers were 20 years old or younger (Van Giezen, 1) and most of them have low expectations on their salary, employment benefit and sees their job as temporary (Leidner, 2002). Similar to Singapore, their labour workforce also consist of elderly as well as women with children employees that shares the same expectations as that of the youth employees. This is usually due to their preference for part-time job. Majority also proceed on to other better jobs as they perceive it to be a temporary one. Thus, we can see that United States have generally a younger labour force, due to the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s general mindset that a fast-food job is a appropriate first job experience and the fact that thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no requirement for skilled experienced employees, thus, displaying the similar traits in the age and type of labour force of the fast-food industry for both Singapore and United States. On the contrary, the labour workforce differs greatly between Singapore and Germany. As discussed in the above part, we distinguished that Singapore has a more elderly workforce with lesser youth employees and no foreign workers employed. In addition, the labour turnover Ã¢â¬â as compared to Singapore, is not high. This is because a large percentage of the labour i n Germany is made up of ethnic minorities Ã¢â¬â foreign workers, economic migrants from the old Eastern Bloc and guest workers mostly from Turkey and Greece (Royle, 2002). The economic migrants and guest workers took up a large percentage Ã¢â¬â 50 percent to 90 percent of the workforce, unlike that of SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s- where foreign workers are not allowed to work in the fast-food industry. Employee representation in the fast-food industry Employee representation varies between different countries and the state laws and regulations may be more pro-employees or pro-employers, which will be explored in paragraphs below. Employee representation comes in the form of trade unions, work councils, co-determination and collective bargaining. Trade/Work unions are Ã¢â¬ ¦.. As the industry expands rapidly, it gives rise to an unhealthy employment environment where thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no prospects for future growth or promotion in their career, poor wages and benefits, stressful environ ment and these usually takes place in a union-free environment (Royle Towers, 2002). Companies are increasingly denying employees their rights and benefits and the situation is aggravated without the presence of trade unions or favorable employees regulations, as employees might be unable to voice out their concerns or request for their employment rights. In this case, Singapore and United States are similar as both nations have the least regulated systems (Royle Towers, 2002) and their laws and regulations are seemingly to be pro-employers. In Singapore, since its independence day Ã¢â¬â industrial peace is the main objective from the creation of the legal framework and unions can only be formed under conditional rules and under the judgment of the Labour Minister (Deyo, cited in Pereira, 2002). In addition, Singapore is described having a Ã¢â¬Ëauthoritarian corporatist modelÃ¢â¬â¢ where they view politicized trade unions as a threat that will unstable the political s ystem as well as a group that might collude to request for outrageous demands. As labour is a precious and essential resource of Singapore, they learnt from the problems before 1995 that strikes, interunion disharmonious relations and political interference has contributed a lot to the decline of the economy. Thus, the government has decided to reinforce labour laws and regulations to ensure industrial peace (Tan, cited in Pereira, 2002). However, the Industrial Relations Act did not include issues such as retrenchment, promotion, dismissal, work assignments and such terms are to be negotiated between the employers and the employees (Pereira, 2002). This showed that the laws in Singapore gave power to the employers. However, there are still some areas that the government has set aside to protect the basic rights of the employees such as stating down their work hours, number of paid annual and sick leave, and overtime rate. The government has also made the National Trade Union Congress (NTUC) the only national union body of Singapore and all unions had to be affiliated with them (Leggett, cited in Pereira, 2002). NTUC also worked with the National Wage Council were they discuss with the government, employers and employees to assess the wages annually and revisions of wages and guidelines will be generally be adopted by large multinational and local corporations. For the employees, they have an option to join a union (Tan, cited in Pereira, 2002). An excellent example would be the employees in McDonaldsÃ¢â¬â¢. They believe that unions are not required, as they have their own Human Resource Management Programme that helps keep their workers appeased and promote loyalty within them to the company. However, the workers have never considered a collective representation as firstly, it is not necessary for them to join a union, next is because they are pleased with whatever has already been offered to them in terms of wages and benefits. Similarly to Uni ted States, the employers in the fast-food industry have the upper hand in determining the conditions of employment as there is very little presence of trade unions and strict regulations, thus allowing them more freedom to implement their own rules. Technically, the workers have no or little rights to their employment and the employers have Ã¢â¬Ëno legal obligation of fairnessÃ¢â¬â¢ (Leidner, 2002), thus showing similar pro-employer labour regulations traits as Singapore. However, one distinct difference is that workers in America are not protected with basic rights, unlike Singapore workers, as paid vacations and paid holidays are provided at the discretion of the employers and not legally mandated (Rasnic, cited in Leidner, 2002). The stressful and competitive environment of the fast-food industry in United States, bundled with the employer-bias regulations has disadvantaged the employees greatly. Even though the workers are unhappy and discontent with their job, it has not led to result in unionization. This is due to the young and inexperienced work not educated about unions, has came to terms with their wages and benefits as they have low expectations, sees the job only temporary, and are unsupportive of labour laws (Leidner, 2002). One other reason for the lack of unionization is because of the resistance by the fast-food corporations, who openly declared that they are anti-unions. In conclusion, even though Singapore and United States showed slight differences, it generally showed a greater similarities in terms of how the regulations are pro-employers, the reason of the lack of unionization and how fast-food corporations are technically undaunted by unions, or the lack of it, and are able to actively promote their own set of corporate regulations for work and employment relations. As compared to Singapore, the German system can be seen as being the opposite end of the spectrum as far as workersÃ¢â¬â¢ rights are concerned. Germany has a highly juridified industrial relation system complete with formal legalization of trade unions and a comprehensive system of work councils suggests that it might be one of the better development of employee representation (Royle Towers, 2002). Basically, employees in Germany are supported by the work unions, unlike that of Singapore where most regulations are employer-bias, and union participation in optional. However, even with such systems implemented in Germany, the unions encountered barriers to increase workersÃ¢â¬â¢ benefits, wage levels, forming union supported work councils and ensure that the companies comply to the collective agreements. For instance, McDonaldsÃ¢â¬â¢ has effectively managed to evade collective agreements and defy work councils for 18 years and counting, showing the difficulty of work force to have a say even with the presence of work unions. Another difference between Singapore and Germany is also how the fast-food corporations work with the uni ons. In Singapore, the laws are favourable for them as it employer-bias thus they are able to instill their own practices and methods for employee and work relations. On the other hand, German national fast-food companies usually adopt co-operative methods and relations to deal with the unions even though some still take an anti-union position (Royle Towers, 2002). Eventually, they are still able to turn the tables around, evading strict rules and able to set their own systems and practices. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Fast Food Industry" essay for you Create order
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
For some people, the use of alcohol and drugs can lead to a chronic disease or long-term illness that has serious medical and social consequences. Are you feeling down, left out, trying to fit in? Addiction begins so easily and takes over without any warning. It can begin with a bad day, consequences, peer pressure, or a teen trying to find a way to fit in. Ã¢â¬Å"An estimated 2.4 million Americans used prescription drugs non-medically for the first time within the past year, which averages to approximately 6,600 initiates per dayÃ¢â¬ , states According to, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Ã¢â¬Å"In 2014, 47,055 people died from drug overdoses. Since 2000, opioid drug overdoses have jumped 200%Ã¢â¬ . While some people believe drug addiction is a choice, it is a disease. Continued drug use changes the brain s structure and how the brain functions. Also, Environmental cues is why some people get addicted. Furthermore, drug addiction, like other diseases, may require medication to treat. Drug addiction is a disease that affects every aspect of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life and Is a serious health issue. It begins with one-time use, which leads to full dependency. The symptoms of being addicted is loss of control, cravings, physical dependence, and tolerance. You can tell the difference between drug abuse and addiction. Addiction is when one loses the ability to willingly stop using drugs. When one is addicted to drugs the only thing they care about is how they are going to get their next fix. TheyShow MoreRelatedDrug Addiction And Its Effects On The Brain4200 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesPresident ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s war on drugs, combined with the rise of crack cocaine in the early 1980s, minor drug offenders were filling the United States prison system at a rapid rate. 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Heroin causes heroinRead MoreAddiction Speech953 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAddiction My aunt struggles with an addiction to prescription drugs after being prescribed pain medication for endometriosis for over 3 years. She found ways to continue to get these drugs 2 years after the doctors stop prescribing it too her. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand the disease and yet it is so common, so I am bringing you information that I have researched in the hopes that you all may understand it better as well. Approximately 1 out of 8 people in the United States suffers from some kind of addictionRead MoreAddiction as a Disease: Addiction is a term that has traditionally been used to refer to1400 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAddiction as a Disease: Addiction is a term that has traditionally been used to refer to psychiatric syndrome that is caused by illicit drug use. Actually, addition is the only psychiatric condition whose symptoms are regarded as an illegal activity. 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Drug addiction is considered a brain disease asRead MoreThe Effects Of Drug Addiction On College Camp uses1703 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDrug addiction is often a misunderstood condition. In actuality, it is a very complex disease. While there are many factors that contribute to whether an individual will become an addict, genes also have a significant influence. This makes this a disease that can be passed down from generations. Once drugs enter the body, they start to work in the brain in various ways. One way is by imitating the structure of a neurotransmitter and another is by over stimulating the reward center. After prolongedRead MoreEssay On The Effects Of Drugs739 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesnumber of things that can harm your body. A major one is drug. Not only does drugs harm your body, but also effect your behavior and people around you. Drugs come in many forms, from drinking to smoking. Ã¢â¬Å"Tobacco is one of the world most used drug, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s responsible for an estimated 5 million deaths worldwide each yearÃ¢â¬ (Addiction and Health). Abusing drugs can cause mental, health problems, and also effect the people around you. The use of drugs cause people to experience mental issues such as behavior
Question: Discuss about thePrinciples of Environmental Health. Answer: Literature Review Related to Health Effects of Asbestos, its Control, and Monitoring Introduction Workplace safety is one of the vital components for both the employees and employers in an organization. Becklake, Bagatin Neder (2007) commented that employers should take necessary steps in protecting employees from the harmful impacts of any chemicals and materials causing damage to inside air quality. Due to the usage of asbestos in buildings, it may result in adverse health risks. The risks come from inhaling asbestos fibers that easily penetrates into body tissues and causing fatal diseases among people. The employees get exposed to asbestos through eating, drinking or coming into contact with asbestos emitted things. Several steps should be taken necessarily for analyzing the extent of harm caused by asbestos and diverse ways to rectify it (Bernstein et al. 2008). This assignment will be dealing with the adverse health hazards those impacts on human health and the potential sources of asbestos exposure. Moreover, it also discusses monitoring and controlling principles used for scheming health hazards in society. The health promotional programs and nature of health hazards are also discussed in this context. Analyzing Major Health Hazards from Asbestos that may Impact on Human Health In recent times, both industrialization and development in several sectors have increased immensely that has elevated the chances of health-related hazards. According to Burge (2004), IOHA (International Occupational Hygiene Association) primary goal is in developing and promoting occupational hygiene across the globe. It is necessary to the organizations to be a certified member of it for preventing employees to suffer from several health hazards from asbestos (McFalls, 1998). At when continuous exposure to asbestos causes inflammation as well as scarring that adversely effects on breathing and may also lead to solemn health issues. The factors that determine the extent of harmfulness caused by asbestos to individuals are exposure duration, concentration, and frequency. As stated by Chen et al. (2007), the diseases that are caused due to the breathing of asbestos are shortness of breath, persistent cough, chest pain, appetite loss, and weight loss, swelling of face or neck and fatig ue. Moreover, constant exposure to asbestos also enhances the chances of lung cancer, pleural disorders, non-malignant lung, mesothelioma and even long-term ailments. The period between the exposure to asbestos and that of the appearance of its symptoms is nearly 10-50 years. Davies (2007) commented that medical researchers have shown that employees those exposed to asbestos for prolonged duration have increased the chances of suffering from lung, gastrointestinal and colorectal cancers. Even more, the other health hazards those caused due to asbestos are acute effects, chronic effects, and reproductive effects. The Government has made laws related to usage of products those made from asbestos. It is said to have products well protected, shielded and insulated from emitting harmful fibers and chemicals. The products those contain asbestos are floor tiles, wall panels, asbestos, cement, electrical insulation, ceiling tiles, boiler insulation and attic insulation. As opined by Dong et al. (2010), generally individuals and workers are exposed to asbestos due to occupational settings like home renovations, construction works, and other related works. There are several sources of asbestos exposure such as car manufacturing industries and asbestos-using industr ies. Even within the organizations, asbestos can be detected that may also cause to employees; if exposed for a longer period (Schmitt, Diepgen Bauer, 2009). Potential Sources of Asbestos Exposure and Health Impact Associated with Environmental Hazards According to Foley et al. (2005), asbestos fibers irrespective of any types are dangerous and adversely impacts on human health. When asbestos is on the loose, it combines with air particles very easily causing harmful diseases. The factors those contribute to amplify asbestos exposure, and adverse health impacts are the amount of exposure, for how long people are exposed to it and other chemicals they are exposed to. Moreover, people smoking cigarettes and are exposed to asbestos-related work and products have higher chances of getting cancer (Mergler et al. 2007). The breathing and in-taking of asbestos may increase the chances of getting infected with several hazardous diseases. It has been scientifically proven that the products those contain more than 1% of asbestos minerals can be considered to be hazardous. Forbes et al. (2009) commented that both respiratory system and lungs get infected from asbestos. It is because the tiny fibers of asbestos get settled inside the lugs and thereby cause major harm to the chest. The organizations need to be environmentally conscious in emitting asbestos into the environment and causing major diseases to people. Gehrt (1996) stated that statistical studies have shown that besides negative affecting the human body, asbestos also adversely affects the environment. Air and water can easily bear asbestos particles without even dissolving it. It can easily get settled on soil and get absorbed by the surface. Moreover, it also gets easily blown away by the wind and enters the human body through inhaling that poisonous air. The people working at mines, factory and asbestos manufacturing organizations suffer the most from this material; if not preventive clothes are worn properly. As opined by Jarup (2003), the potentiality of getting infected from prolonged exposure to asbestos varies from manageable to severe levels. It is also seen that apart from the workers, their family members are also infected from asbestos causing diseases. It is bechause the asbestos particulates get attached to the clothings, hair and skin and are hence carried to home (Scheuhammer et al. 2007). Evaluating Principles of Assessing, Monitoring and Controlling Environmental Hazards Caused by Asbestos in the Community As stated by Jha (2009), ILO or International Labour Organization passed certain laws and regulations regarding the protection of workers against occupational health hazards. There are certain conventions those are to be followed by workers exposed to asbestos-related work. Proper clothing should be provided to employees; periodic medical treatment should be provided to workers and double changing room to prevent dust from gong outside the room and to pollute the environment. Moreover, employers should monitor the work environment in certain time periods and fix meetings for any improvements in it for making the workplace well suitable and protective to the employees. Jones et al. (2008) mentioned that international organizations like WHO (World Health Organization), ISO (International Organization for Standardization) and ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) had provided manuals to individual organizations related to asbestos manufacturing and product development. Hence , about these rules and regulations lay down by these organizations; companies need to standardize the exposure of employees and workers to asbestos (Must et al. 1999). According to Khan et al. (2008), organizations related to asbestos production and usage needs to monitor the health of the workers periodically under the scheduled medical practitioners. Even, the organizations are bound to pay all the expenses required for monitoring health, obtaining records and keeping those records for future relevance. Moreover, organizations should ensure to provide all kind of training, instruction, and information to workers for best use of asbestos and preventing them from getting fatal diseases from it. Kinney (2008) commented that the employees are also taught to safely handle asbestos products under certain controlled measures like wearing appropriate clothing for handling it. As per WHS (Workplace Health and Safety), the organizations should ensure that asbestos-related workshops should be totally separated from other working areas to prevent the spread of it among their employees. Along with this, organizations should take preventive measures like monit oring the air inside the workplace after certain time periods so that it doesnt exceed its level of contamination. Therefore, a well-written plan of asbestos management is primed, maintained as well as reviewed at periodic time intervals (Lax et al. 1998). Interactive and Interdisciplinary Nature of Environmental Health Problems As per the opinion of Oftedal et al. (2008), asbestos-related diseases are not only restricted to workers dealing with asbestos materials; but also extend to their family members and other people in the community. So, environmental educational is necessary that helps in connecting the world and its citizens to adopt sustainable approaches for raising awareness of occupational health. It also helps in understanding the awful impacts of asbestos to human health. It also conducts interactive sessions that also explain organizations adoption of several methods to prevent workers from getting infected from asbestos-related illness. According to Ottesn et al. (2008), the workers and owners are trained and encouraged to lead a healthy life by adopting several means of preventions of asbestos attacks. It helps employees and workers to explore several links in understanding as well as tackling real-life environment along with sustainable issues. Moreover, the interdisciplinary fields also hel p in understanding the traditional boundaries that help in separating diverse disciplines such as geology, policies as well as geography. The asbestos-related problem is a global issue, and hence methods should be adopted across any part of the world for protecting workers from its harmful effects. Different perspectives and interactive sessions are conducted and are discussed to find out best ways of preventing environmental health problems among the people (Oberg et al. 2011). Health Promotional Programs about Asbestos Related Health Issues As mentioned by Leigh et al. (1999), asbestos control and promotional programs are held that helps in the proper handling of asbestos-related products and materials. The control plans addresses methods of controlling the release of asbestos fibers as well as repression of operations related to usage of asbestos. Moreover, it also contains several engineering controls, hygiene practices, work practices and facilities those necessary to adopt for controlling exposure to asbestos. The several methods of decontaminating workers clothings and removal or cleaning up asbestos waste are also promoted for the well-being of workers. According to Maio et al. (2009), in these promotional activities, work instructions related to hazards as well as necessary controls is also provided to workers and employers. A regulatory framework is set for determining the provision of licensing as well as permitting the authorities to use asbestos materials. Along with this, the health promotional programs also acknowledge workers in adopting several methods and measures for constant monitoring the level of airborne asbestos in the workplace to which, the employees are exposed to (Norby et al. 2010). Margni et al. (2002) stated that promotional programs organized by international and national organizations WHO, NHS, etc. had obtained copies from organizations handling with asbestos-related work. A meeting between employers and workers are held and supervised by these regulatory companies to ensure that workers are provided with plentiful safety measures while handling asbestos materials. Both the employers and employees are given advice related to the cause of different diseases due to prolonged exposure to asbestos. The workers are trained with the importance of safety measures and equipment necessary for workplace safety. Matson et al. (1997) mentioned that promotional programs also contain the usage of different work-related signs that the workers and employees should put in the places where asbestos-related work is carried. It also states the importance of restricting certain areas of entry by the unauthorized people to ensure the protection of people from asbestos. The progr ams also suggest workers and employers to use vacuum outfitted HEPA filter for damping and mopping the areas of asbestos materials to ensure maximum safety of workers (Morens, Folkers Fauci, 2004). Conclusion The overall assignment discusses the several health hazards those related to prolonged asbestos exposure. Due to this, several chronic, as well as serious diseases, may occur to workers and employees in the workplace. Diseases like Cancer, lungs infection, respiratory problems and other prolonged ailments may cause to workers depending on nature, time and kind of asbestos exposure. In this context, several potential sources associated with related asbestos exposure along with its adverse effects and impact on the environment and the human body are discussed. Several sources and diseases caused due to asbestos are discussed related to this topic. Moreover, certain principles about monitoring, assessing and controlling environmental hazards are also discussed. The health promotional plans and rules and regulation set by international organizations are discussed. It is necessary for the organizations to adhere to these written rules and regulations for ensuring the safety of employees a nd workers within organizations. Part 2: Recommendations Including on-going Motoring and Evaluation of Asbestos Executive Summary The entire report has discussed the asbestos-related harmful health risks that employees and workers are facing during their work. It is important to increase awareness among the people regarding prolonged exposure to asbestos. It has discussed several practices that are necessary to be followed for minimizing the risks. International and national organizations have set up several standards, rules, and regulations to protect workers from asbestos exposure. At the same time, it is equally necessary for the employers to adhere to these rules and ethics for their workers safety. Moreover, the report also discusses the role of ILO and WHO in predicting and creates awareness among both employers and workers regarding the harmful effects of asbestos as well as ways to prevent it. It also discusses the different ways the asbestos gets spread from workers to general people and the methods that can be adopted to prevent such mishap. Proper clothing and masks are needed to be provided to the w orkers and employers to prevent asbestos fibers to get attached to clothing. Double changing room can also be provided to the employees for their self-security and prevent carrying off the asbestos particles to their respective homes. Different promotional activities are set-up that informed employees and workers regarding asbestos-related risks and sickness. Introduction As commented by Jones et al. (2008), organizations dealing with asbestos-containing materials and its production should investigate the performance of the employees and workers involved in it. It is done to establish an efficient monitoring as well as maintenance program required for dealing asbestos in an effective way. Several preventive and precautionary steps are adopted that helps in monitoring of the overall asbestos-related activities within the organization. It is the duty and responsibility of the managers and employers to measure and adopt certain precautions to ascertain workers from exposure to asbestos. Wang et al. (2008) had an opinion that several international organizations have already set rules and standards to which, the asbestos-producing and using companies are bound to adhere to. In this context, several recommendations will be discussed evaluation as well as monitoring of exposure to asbestos at the workplace. Along with this, the problems due to asbestos expos ure and certain preventive measures will also be discussed. Recommendations Every organization dealing with asbestos-containing materials should nominate a dependable and responsible person for overall maintenance as well as monitor the proper handling of asbestos. As stated by Wang et al. (2008), organizations should hire a qualified professional for investigating and auditing the inside air and environment of asbestos producing companies. Several responsive actions are taken such as encapsulation, enclosure, encasement and repair of asbestos-containing products. These steps are taken to prevent the release of asbestos microfibers to get attached to workers skin, clothes and hair. The actions include placement of air-tight blockades around the materials containing asbestos as well as covering these materials with hard sealing materials. Vorosmarty et al. (2000) suggested that organizations need to have a well-written and certified monitoring and maintenance program to which, they have to adhere to for the safety of workers. These should be elements such as notification, surveillance, controls, work practices, record keeping as well as training. Even more, evaluation checklist should also be present for periodic checking of both condition and conservation of asbestos containing materials (Jarup, 2003). According to Taubes (2008), in the notification, the programme is set-up for all the infected people that contain asbestos and its location. Methods are, therefore, discussed that helps in avoiding certain disturbances caused due to these asbestos related products. In surveillance, regular scrutiny and observation are done for noting down and documenting changes that take place within the organization related to any asbestos containing products. Smith Schindler (2009) also commented that it is equally important to control all the systems those are engaged in monitoring as well as maintenance of the asbestos related products. Moreover, several work practices are also to be adopted such as protection programs, basic operations, maintenance procedures and clean-up techniques of asbestos fibers are also monitored and evaluated on a daily basis. It is done to minimize and nominalise the spread of asbestos fibers outside the workplace or within the workplace environment. Vadas et al. (200 9) also suggested that in record keeping, the management documents related to asbestos are stored permanently. The health records, medical records as well as air sampling records are kept for future references and check whether organizations are operating while complying with such rules and regulations. Shih et al. (2009) commented that training sessions are held for providing adequate training to workers regarding their maintenance of personal health. The levels of training vary from activities that involve accidental disturbance of asbestos containing materials. This level, therefore, trains personnel to handle the asbestos related products in a proper way. Moreover, the training sessions also contain special operations and guidance for maintaining as well as repairing the tasks those involve asbestos (Pope III Dockery, 2006). Along with this, workers are also trained properly to wear proper insulated clothings, masks and helmets to prevent sticking of asbestos fibers to the human body and their clothes. Good quality insulation and coatings should be provided to the exterior of the asbestos materials to prevent any such radiation and spread of fibers (Pruss-Ustun Corvalan, 2007). Conclusion The entire part of this report deals with the several maintenance and monitoring programs that employers should adopt within organizations for the health benefit of their workers. The different work practices, surveillance, control and training sessions are provided to workers and employers to prevent them from getting infected by asbestos fibers. They are also made aware of several chronic diseases that can cause due to asbestos exposure without taking any preventive measures. Training and guidance are also given appropriately to the workers for handling asbestos-related products in an effective and efficient way. To impart the employees with knowledge, qualified and educated contractors are hired for guidance. In this section, proper handling of inventory storage and assessment of asbestos-containing materials are also discussed. References Becklake, M. R., Bagatin, E., Neder, J. A. (2007). Asbestos-related diseases of the lungs and pleura: uses, trends and management over the last century. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 11(4), 356-369. Bernstein, J. A., Alexis, N., Bacchus, H., Bernstein, I. L., Fritz, P., Horner, E., Li, N., Mason, S., Nel, A., Oullette, J., Reijula, K., Reponen, T., Seltzer, J., Smith, A., Tarlo, S. M. (2008). The health effects of nonindustrial indoor air pollution. 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Monday, April 20, 2020
? The Mcdonaldization Of Society? Essay, Research Paper In chapter four of # 8220 ; The McDonaldization of Society, # 8221 ; George Ritzer discusses calculability, the 2nd dimension of McDonaldization. Calculability involves ciphering, numeration, and quantifying, which makes it really efficient in the procedure of McDonaldization. When taking the fast-food industry as an illustration, there are three cardinal issues covering with calculability. The first of these issues emphasizes measure instead than quality of merchandises. Just like all other industries, the fast-food industry is # 8220 ; bigger is better # 8221 ; . Most all fast-food ironss have alone hallmark merchandises to do the consumer think that their points have greater measure every bit good as better quality. Burger King has the # 8220 ; Whopper # 8221 ; , McDonalds, of class, has the celebrated # 8220 ; Big Mac # 8221 ; , and Pizza Hut has the tremendous # 8220 ; Bigfoot # 8221 ; pizza. Another issue that Ritzer points about the McDonaldization of fast-food eatin g houses is the semblance of measure that they portray. Fast-food eating houses use many fast ones to do it look as though Thursday e consumer is getting the most for his or her money. We will write a custom essay sample on The Mcdonaldization Of Society Essay Research Paper or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Huge buns and large amounts of condiments are used in order to make the hamburger patties seem larger. The boxes that are used to hold french fries have stripes that make to portion seem larger. In addition, the fries are scooped in such away that makes them look like they are overflowing. The third issue that Ritzer discusses in his book deals with the need to reduce the speed of production and serve the masses. Speed has always been an important factor in the fast-food industry. The drive-through window has greatly enhanced the Ã¢â¬Å"in and outÃ¢â¬ aspect of the fast-food restaurants. In addition, each fast-food chain has catchy way of increasing the distribution time of their products. One of the most obvious examples of this is Dominos goal of Ã¢â¬Å"eight minutes out the doorÃ¢â¬ . Yet another aspect of this process is the fact that every ingredient must be measured and accurate so that the restaurant will not lose any profit. These three main issues are the key points of the calculability of McDonaldization.
Sunday, March 15, 2020
Essay on INFORMATION NETWORKS AS ENTERPRISE GLUE Essay on INFORMATION NETWORKS AS ENTERPRISE GLUE Essay on INFORMATION NETWORKS AS ENTERPRISE GLUEToday, many users create their own home networks, which they want to run smoothly. However, beginners may face considerable problems, while developing their networks. In this regard, the development of the network between several PCs or laptops is not the main challenge but the emergence of new devices and software raises the problem of their compatibility but users still want to have all their devices connected and united within one network. Facing the similar problem, I attempted to find out how easy it is to connect different devices at home to create a well-functioning network.I approached the problem from the standpoint of the beginner, who has no experience in networking. My first step was to identify what I actually want from my network. To answer this question I had to determine, which devices I have at my disposal which I would like to connect into my home network. I decided to connect the devices which I had at hand, including my laptop, my tablet and iPhone. In such a way, I have got three devices which I intended to connect together and to get a network running perfectly. At first glance, the task was simple since I had to create the simple wireless network because all the three devices had the option of wireless networking.However, the first problem I faced was the connecting my three devices which all had three different operation systems. Frankly, I do not pay much attention to the operation system I used since I can grow accustom to any of them. This is why, I did not even try to synchronize operation systems of my devices, which I used on the regular basis. This is why I have got three devices with three operation systems. On analyzing the situation, I considered that I may have problems with the compatibility of the three devices which had different operation systems. This is why I decided to refer to internet for assistance looking for a free advisor or any sort of online help which could get fo r free since the problem did not seem too complex for me.At first, I tried to google the information which I wanted to find but results which I obtained did not seem to me quite reliable and credible. This is why I decided to focus on more specialized online resources. My next step was the selection of the website providing the technical support. I did almost randomly, although I skimmed through the list of websites singling out those website which offered their services for free or, at least promised that their services will be free of charge. After that I selected one of the top-rated sites, Tech Support Guy, and clicked on the link to access that website. At first, I have got the generation information about the website from the Techsupportalert team, and after that I finally get the link to the official website of Tech Support Guy. As I entered the website, I looked through it in an attempt to find any information relevant to my problem. There were some FAQs, forums, and other l inks which could potentially give me the answer to my question. However, I decided not to waste my time on surfing the website. Instead, I just typed in Ã¢â¬Å"home network different OSÃ¢â¬ in the search field. I have got a list of threads, where this issue was discussed by users. At the top of the list, there was the thread Ã¢â¬Å"Creating a network with multiple OSÃ¢â¬ . So I clicked on the link and entered the thread, where I have got the detailed information on how to create a network connecting multiple operation system. The threat provided the detailed, step by step information how to create the network and make all devices compatible, regardless of the different operation systems used. In such a way, on conducting a relatively brief search, I have found the free tech support website that gave the answer to my question concerning the creation of the home network using devices with different operation systems installed.Thus, today, users will hardly face any difficulties w hile finding the technical support online. At any rate, they can get information they need relatively fast, unless they need really complex solutions to serious problems.
Friday, February 28, 2020
Mental Health Assessment and Management - Case Study Example Depression will also always affect oneÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts. The person will tend to think negatively about the world, family, self and their future. They will think of life being hopeless, they will think of themselves being useless and even think of taking their life (Roy, 2005; Lam, 2012). A depressed person will also either eat too much or not enough. Might have trouble sleeping or oversleep due to extreme tiredness. In the end, depression can affect oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life, to a point that it results in serious problems with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s family, at school, job and with friends (Roy, 2005; Lam, 2012). Mrs. Johnson is suffering from depression. She recently lost her job, which may be a sign of depression being the cause of losing the job. She feels worthless Ã¢â¬Å"She feels her children may be Ã¢â¬Å"better offÃ¢â¬ without herÃ¢â¬ . She also has a record of three-month worsening anxiety, which explains the depression. Anxiety is a cause, and also a symptom of depression. Other symptoms of depression identified from Mrs. JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s report are; decreased appetite decreased energy, and suicidal ideation (Roy, 2005; Lam, 2012). Another mental problem observed is suicide. Warning signs of suicidal person are; if the person is talking about suicide, if the person is depressed and feeling hopeless, if the person has low self-esteem, if there is change in the personÃ¢â¬â¢s sleeping patterns, eating habits (eating less or more than usual), personality (withdrawn, less sociable or sad), and behavior (poor/ reduced concentration). Mrs. JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s depression could be a cause of her lack of concentration that resulted in a loss of her job. She is to be divorced, and worries about her children. She thinks she is a failure. She may also have to sell her house. All these negative thoughts are a source of the thoughts about suicide. It could also be that Mrs. JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s accident could have been self-inflicted. She tells all her experiences in tears after the accident. It could mean that she was trying to end it all. This could have been her first attempt to suicide, and so she was explaining the reason as to why she needed it. From NHS information, it is also clear that Mrs. Johnson was, and is still vulnerable to suicide. Mental health, life history, lifestyle, relationships, employment, and genetics, are some of the factors that make one vulnerable to suicide (NHS, 2012). Mrs. Johnson has a family history of depression in his father and grandfather (paternal) and also has an uncle that committed suicide due to depression. She recently lost her job; her relationship with her husband is coming to an end, while that with her sons is filled with hopelessness as she perceives it. She is also depressed and has suffered anxiety for three months.